Skip banner
HomeSourcesHow Do I?Site MapHelp
Return To Search FormFOCUS
Search Terms: "Patients Bill of Rights"

Document ListExpanded ListKWICFULL format currently displayed

Previous Document Document 25 of 85. Next Document

Copyright 2000 The National Journal, Inc.  
The National Journal

 View Related Topics 

August 12, 2000

SECTION: POLITICS; Pg. 2618; Vol. 32, No. 33

LENGTH: 8625 words

HEADLINE: Bush and Gore: Where They Stand


Bush: Summary
Consistently opposes abortion.
Public Funding
Opposes the use of public funds to provide or to advocate
abortions. Can be expected to cut federal funds for domestic
family-planning services through Title X. As Texas governor,
signed laws that restricted state family-planning funds. Wants to
greatly increase federal funding for abstinence-only sex
International Family Planning
Would reinstate the Mexico City Policy, which during the
Administration of his father, President Bush, banned overseas
family-planning groups that received federal funding from
providing abortion-related services, even with private money.
Would reinstate the ban that was in effect during his father's
Administration prohibiting privately funded abortions at overseas
military bases.
"Partial-Birth" Abortion
Would sign legislation to ban the procedure.
Supports abortion rights across the board.
Public Funding
Supports federal funding of abortions for Medicaid recipients in
cases of rape, incest, and life endangerment. Supports Clinton
Administration increases in federal funding for family planning,
including abortion, through Title X.
International Family Planning
Supports the Clinton Administration's reversal of the Mexico City
Supports the Clinton Administration's policy of allowing military
personnel to obtain privately funded abortions at military bases
"Partial-Birth" Abortion
Opposes Republican-authored legislation that would ban the
Bush: Summary
Opposes quotas and racial preferences.
Civil Rights Enforcement
Declined to back a Democratic-sponsored hate crimes bill, saying:
"All crime is hate crime."
Access to Education
Supports what he calls affirmative-access programs. His "Texas 10
percent plan" automatically admits those students who graduate in
the top 10 percent of their high school class to any state
college or university.
Business Opportunities
Declined to support the 1999 Nondiscrimination Employment Act,
which extends federal workplace discrimination protections to
gays. Advocates breaking down government contracts into smaller
sizes to promote entrepreneurship in all communities.
Gore: Summary
Supports affirmative action across the board. Has strongly
opposed state and local efforts to end affirmative action
Civil Rights Enforcement
Strongly supports congressional hate crimes legislation.
Access to Education
Has championed the Clinton Administration's establishment of an
Education Department Advisory Board to advise the Education
Secretary on ways to strengthen historically black colleges.
Business Opportunities
Supports extending workplace protections to gays. Supports pay
equity for women.
Bush: Summary
Supports a more market-oriented approach to agriculture than does
Gore. Touts opening overseas markets as the best way to boost
American farm income.
Freedom to Farm Act
Supports eliminating most federal subsidies, but advocates
covering more commodities under federal crop insurance. Would
phase out the estate tax and pursue tax incentives to encourage
farmers to save money for lean years.
Would call upon the European Union to open its markets to
bioengineered crops.
Would push for fast-track trade-negotiating authority and pursue
new markets abroad for American agricultural products. Opposes
withholding food and medicine from countries as part of
unilateral trade sanctions or embargoes.
Supports federal funding for research into effective ways to use
ethanol and other biofuels.
Gore: Summary
Would instate regular federal payments to farmers to stabilize
farm income from year to year.
Freedom to Farm Act
Critical of the market-oriented 1996 Freedom to Farm Act, which
exchanged farm subsidies for "transition payments" aimed at
encouraging farmers to plant as the market dictates. Favors
targeting federal aid to small- and medium-sized farms, and more-
aggressive enforcement of antitrust laws in agribusiness.
Supports federal funding of bioengineered agricultural products
and of efforts to open foreign markets for them. But also urges
strong scientific review to address consumers' safety concerns
about bioengineered foods.
Supports opening markets and reducing tariffs abroad for American
farm products, despite opposition from labor leaders. Like Bush,
opposes including food and medicine in unilateral trade
Supports federal funding for research on ethanol and tax
incentives for using it.
Bush: Summary
Supports vigorous enforcement of existing laws, but opposes
increased government regulation of the industry.
Favors Republican-authored 1999 Bankruptcy Reform Act, which is
awaiting final action in Congress. The bill would force some
bankruptcy filers to pay off more of their debts to credit card
Backs industry position that consumer-privacy protections in the
1999 Financial Services Modernization Act are adequate. (Act
limits the information that banks can share with third parties,
but lets them use that information to pitch additional products
to their customers.)
Community Reinvestment Act Reform
Supports provisions enacted in recent financial reforms that
require community groups filing comments on bank mergers and
expansions to annually report information about their own
borrowing. Also supports the newly mandated and less onerous
regulatory reviews of small banks' fair-lending practices.
Gore: Summary
Favors increased consumer-protection regulations in the banking
Opposes 1999 Bankruptcy Reform Act on the grounds that it
provides insufficient consumer protections. Backs compromise
reforms that would require credit card issuers to provide easy-
to-understand information about their interest rates and fees.
Supports strengthening the 1999 Financial Services Modernization
Act to prevent banks from using their customers' personal data
for marketing purposes.
Community Reinvestment Act Reform
Supports a review of the new financial services law's fair-
lending provisions, on the grounds that the rules may invite
small banks to skirt their obligations to lend to the poor. Also
believes the law's supposed "sunshine" provisions may actually
discourage public comment on bank mergers and expansions.
Bush: Summary
Wants to set aside one-quarter of the surplus for broad tax cuts,
and has proposed myriad tax credits in areas from education to
health care. Has been less explicit about direct domestic
spending, but wants to aid farmers, boost military salaries, and
invest in schools and in research and development. Also wants to
overhaul the budget process. Would push for biennial federal
budgets and for legislation that would keep the government
operating even if some appropriations bills were not signed into
law. Would impanel a bipartisan commission to eliminate pork
barrel spending. Would ask Congress for new line-item veto
authority, in the wake of the Supreme Court's 1998 ruling that
the line-item veto approved by Congress in 1995 was
Gore: Summary
Has been a longtime advocate of fiscal restraint through
"reinventing" government and reducing debt; would aim to pay off
the federal debt by 2012. At the same time, would increase
domestic spending in key areas. Has outlined a 10-year surplus
plan that would furnish a Medicare prescription drug benefit and
boost federal spending on education, law enforcement,
environmental protection, and defense. Also would seek double
funding for research in information and technology and create a
job-training account.
Bush: Summary
Supports raising campaign contribution limits, but would tighten
disclosure and lobbying rules.
"Soft Money"
Would bar corporations and labor unions from making unlimited
"soft-money" contributions to the political parties. However,
would permit wealthy individuals to continue making unregulated
soft-money donations.
Wants to require Internet disclosure of campaign contributions
within a week of receipt. Endorsed recently enacted disclosure
laws aimed at so-called 527 political organizations. But does not
support requiring other types of politically active groups to
disclose their issue-oriented expenditures.
Public Financing
Opposes public financing of elections.
Paycheck Protection
Endorses so-called paycheck-protection legislation that would
require labor unions to get members' permission before spending
members' dues on political activities.
Contribution Limits
Wants to increase the limit on campaign contributions to keep
pace with inflation. For example, the individual $ 1,000
contribution limit would be indexed to $ 3,400.
Lobbying Reform
Wants to ban members of Congress from asking lobbyists for
political contributions while Congress is in session.
Gore: Summary
Has proposed a sweeping reform package that would ban unregulated
money and furnish generous public subsidies to candidates.
"Soft Money"
Wants to ban all "soft money," including unregulated
contributions from unions, corporations, and individuals.
Wants to require all politically active groups that broadcast
issue ads within 60 days of an election to disclose their funding
Public Financing
Has proposed a public-private Democracy Endowment, which would
raise $ 7.1 billion over seven years to finance the campaigns of
general election candidates who agree not to accept any other
private money.
Paycheck Protection
Opposes paycheck-protection legislation.
Contribution Limits
Opposes raising the existing contribution limits.
Lobbying Reform
Wants to require lobbyists to disclose more about their
activities, including the names of those to whom they've
contributed, and to post that information monthly on the
Bush: Summary
Emphasizes the family's role in child care and wants to give
states discretion in spending federal grants. Touts his
substantial child care spending increases in Texas.
Child Care Tax Credits
Would double the $ 500-per-child federal tax credit to $ 1,000.
Supports block grants that would allow low-income families to
choose child care providers. Proposes bigger tax cuts for
adoptive families and $ 2.3 billion for child-welfare programs
over five years.
Child Care Standards
Supports measures, now in place in Texas, that require child care
workers to undergo background checks, receive training, and
submit to surprise spot inspections. As Texas governor, has
boosted child care spending by $ 360 million since taking office.
Out-of-Wedlock Births
Wants to see at least as much federal spending on abstinence
education as on teen-contraception programs. Wants to study the
effectiveness of federally funded sex education programs.
Gore: Summary
Proposes a $ 38 billion, 10-year federal program to make child
care more affordable for working families. Some $ 30 billion of
the funding would come out of his $ 250 billion middle-class tax
cut proposal, the rest from the federal budget surplus.
Child Care Tax Credits
Would offer a refundable tax credit to help parents cover as much
as 50 percent of child care costs, compared with 30 percent
today. Low-income families with no tax liabilities would receive
up to $ 2,400 for child care. Would offer a $ 500 tax credit to
stay-at-home parents with infants under age 1.
Child Care Standards
Would provide $ 8 billion in grants to states for day care
improvements, provided that they set up early-childhood reading
programs, improve health and safety standards, require training
and background checks for child care workers, and perform spot
inspections of centers.
Out-of-Wedlock Births
Wants states to pass laws requiring all fathers who owe child
support to pay up or go to work. Wants to strengthen child-
support enforcement and give credit bureaus data on "deadbeat"
parents and challenge credit card companies to deny them new
Bush: Summary
Would support tough laws for domestic violence, juvenile
offenders, and sex offenders. Also wants strong penalties and
longer prison terms for violent offenders.
Death Penalty, DNA Testing
Supports the death penalty for those who commit violent crimes.
Supports post-conviction DNA testing if, in the context of all
the evidence, it can help determine guilt or innocence.
Mandatory Drug Testing of Prisoners, Parolees
Has not staked out a position.
Victims' Rights
Supports a constitutional amendment that would give victims the
right to be notified of trials and probation hearings, to give
input in plea bargains, and to be told when a prisoner's release
is imminent.
Juvenile Crime
Supports aggressive enforcement of existing handgun laws and
prosecution of gun offenses. Says he would support legislation to
prevent juvenile offenders from buying a gun when they become
Gore: Summary
Would support tough gun and gang laws, but places greater
emphasis than Bush on prevention. For example, would give federal
grants to states for crime-mapping software to target crime hot
spots. Supports federal funding to help local governments hire
50,000 new police officers.
Death Penalty, DNA Testing
Supports the death penalty for heinous crimes; says it has a
deterrent effect. Has not stated a position on post-conviction
DNA testing.
Mandatory Drug Testing of Prisoners, Parolees
Supports mandatory drug testing and treatment of state prisoners
before release; would furnish states with $ 500 million in grants
to cover the costs.
Victims' Rights
Supports a constitutional amendment giving victims the right to
be notified of trials and probation hearings, to give input in
plea bargains, and to be told when a prisoner's release is
Juvenile Crime
Would support tough juvenile crime laws and additional federal
funding for school anti-drug programs.
Bush: Summary
Embraces high-tech weapons, including ones for a national missile
defense program.
Defense Spending
Would increase defense spending, particularly for troops' pay and
for weapons research.
National Missile Defense
Would dramatically expand the proposed system of ground-based
rockets, probably adding sea-based and possibly air- and space-
based interceptors; would do so, if need be, at the expense of
the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia and of arms control
in general.
Gays in the Military
Would retain the current "don't ask, don't tell" policy, which
allows closeted gays and lesbians to serve in the military.
Modernizing the Military
Would increase military research-and-development spending by $ 20
billion over five years and focus research on revolutionary
weapons that would "skip a generation" ahead of current
Gore: Summary
Advocates spending increases; would exercise caution on national
missile defense plans.
Defense Spending
Would continue recent steady increases in defense spending.
National Missile Defense
Would continue President Clinton's cautious course by balancing a
limited, ground-based system against international objections and
the strictures of the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia.
Gays in the Military
Rejects the current "don't ask, don't tell" policy as unworkable,
and would work to overturn the law that bans openly gay and
lesbian people from serving in the military.
Modernizing the Military
Focuses on reorganizing the Pentagon, particularly streamlining
business practices and increasing cooperation among the Air
Force, Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, rather than on developing
radically new weapons for each service.
Bush: Summary
Favors a major cut in income tax rates and the privatization of
Social Security.
The Surplus
Favors making broad tax cuts, paying down the debt, and targeting
spending increases and tax credits for education, health, and
Interest Rates
Has said almost nothing about rising interest rates, a major
complaint of U.S. business, but generally supports Alan Greenspan
and the Federal Reserve Board's strategy of raising rates to rein
in inflation.
Supports enforcement, with particular emphasis on price-fixing.
On Microsoft case, has suggested he'd prefer an out-of-court
Gore: Summary
Favors targeted tax cuts, broader increases in spending, but no
major reforms or deregulation of the U.S. economy.
The Surplus
Favors eliminating the national debt more than cutting taxes or
increasing spending.
Interest Rates
Has had little to say about interest rates, but has praised
Greenspan's handling of the issue.
Has given no indication he would depart from current policy. On
Microsoft, supports action against predatory behavior that
impedes competition, which is the basis of the case.
Bush: Summary
Supports vouchers and charter schools, but would expand federal
funding in a few areas, such as early-childhood education and
teacher training.
School Choice
Would give vouchers to students in schools that remain on a
state's "failing" list for three years; the vouchers would be
worth about $ 1,500 and could be used at a public or private
school. Would offer $ 3 billion in loan guarantees to establish or
improve 2,000 charter schools in the next two years.
Would require states to annually test pupils in grades 3 through
8. Would establish a $ 500 million fund to reward schools that
improve their test scores; would give vouchers to pupils in
schools that fail. States that do not improve test scores would
lose administrative money.
Teacher Quality
Would consolidate federal funding for teachers; the move would
dissolve President Clinton's class-size-reduction program and
increase total funding for teacher recruiting, hiring, and
training from $ 2 billion to $ 2.4 billion. Would expand the
current Troops-to-Teachers program budget from $ 2.4 million to $30 million.
School Safety
Supports federal prosecution of juveniles who bring guns to
school. Would rate schools on their safety and make the
information available to parents.
Paying for Education
Would increase the annual limit on contributions to tax-free
education accounts from $ 500 to $ 5,000; the savings could help
pay for education from kindergarten through college.
Early-Childhood Education
Wants to make Head Start more focused on education, and to
require evaluations of each program's effectiveness. Would spend $1 billion annually on a new federal reading initiative based on
testing, remedial help, and teacher training. Proposes $ 400
million for after-school programs.
Gore: Summary
Supports greatly expanding the federal role in education,
including teacher hiring and training, school construction, and
early-childhood education.
School Choice
Opposes vouchers but supports charter schools and public school
choice. Would use federal money to triple the number of charter
schools to 5,100 by 2005.
Would create a $ 500 million Accountability Fund to pay for state
improvement plans. Schools would have to improve or face being
shut down. Would reward states that improve their scores on the
National Assessment of Educational Progress.
Teacher Quality
Supports Clinton's effort to pay for 100,000 new teachers. Would
offer grants to poor school districts to lure top teachers by
giving higher salaries. Wants teacher testing and "fast, fair"
removal of bad teachers. Would establish a Teacher Corps to
encourage professionals and high school graduates to teach.
School Safety
Would offer grants to schools that enforce zero-tolerance
policies for guns on campus and for alternative schools that
educate children who have discipline problems. Unlike Bush, has
no formal plan on rating schools on their safety.
Paying for Education
Would create tax-free accounts for education throughout a
person's life. Employers would be permitted to contribute.
Persons could contribute up to $ 2,500 a year to the account and
withdraw funds without paying taxes if they used the money for
educational purposes.
Early-Childhood Education
Supports Clinton's proposal to spend $ 1 billion more on Head
Start. Would set aside money to train preschool teachers. Favors
voluntary universal prekindergarten for all 4-year-olds.
Bush: Summary
Promises a more state-directed, industry-friendly environmental
policy, although his reliance on this approach while governor of
Texas has come under attack from environmental groups.
Global Warming
Agrees that human activity is causing warming, but opposes the
1997 Kyoto treaty, an international pact signed by the Clinton
Administration, which would force industrial nations to reduce
their greenhouse-gas emissions.
Energy Policy
Has not articulated a detailed energy policy, but would furnish
tax incentives for ethanol use, and has said that he supports the
development of energy-efficient technologies. Supported
provisions in the Texas electricity deregulation bill that
require state utilities to reduce pollution at their oldest coal-
fired power plants.
Advocates flexible cleanup standards and new financial support to
speed up reclamation and development of brownfields-contaminated
waste sites in urban regions.
Snake River Dams
Opposes tearing down four dams on Washington state's Snake River
to protect the seriously depleted local species of salmon and
other fishes. Instead, recommends alternative methods to save the
Gore: Summary
Promotes a continuation and, in some cases, an acceleration of
the Clinton Administration's environmental policies.
Global Warming
Supports the Kyoto global-warming treaty.
Energy Policy
Calls for a 10-year, $ 125 billion energy plan that would help
electric firms retrofit coal-fired power plants; develop new
energy technologies; and provide tax breaks, loans, and grants to
consumers and businesses who switch to environment-friendly
homes, factories, and vehicles.
Calls for more funding to help companies rehabilitate urban
brownfields. Would let state and local governments float bonds to
pay for cleaning up abandoned factories.
Snake River Dams
Promises to hold a "salmon summit" to decide whether to breach
the dams to protect the declining populations of salmon and other
fishes in the Snake River.
Bush: Summary
Emphasizes free trade and internationalism, with an emphasis on
unilaterally asserting American interests.
Arms Control
Opposes the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and would
withdraw from the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, if necessary, to
build a robust national missile defense system. Is generally
skeptical of multilateral arms control agreements.
Would strive to reduce the role of U.S. forces in peacekeeping
missions around the world and would shun future missions unless
vital U.S. interests were at stake.
Favors a "one-China" policy, and supports the Taiwan Security
Enhancement Act, which commits the United States to closer
defense cooperation with Taiwan.
Would refocus U.S.-Russian relations on security matters. Would
likely oppose further loans to Russia by the International
Monetary Fund.
Middle East
Would move the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem.
Advocates a timetable for withdrawing U.S. troops and
transferring the peacekeeping mission to European allies.
Latin America and Mexico
Supports NAFTA and fast-track trade-negotiating authority, and
proposes a hemispheric free-trade area for the Americas.
Supports continued economic sanctions and advocates increasing
support for Iraqi opposition groups seeking to oust Saddam
Hussein. Has publicly threatened to unilaterally strike any known
Iraqi sites used to produce weapons of mass destruction.
North Korea
Has aligned himself with foreign-policy advisers who have
criticized the Clinton Administration deal that freezes North
Korea's nuclear weapons program, but provides fuel oil to and
constructs civil nuclear reactors for that country.
Emphasizes free trade and internationalism, with an emphasis on
cooperative engagement through international institutions such as
the United Nations.
Arms Control
Supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and a
renegotiated Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty. Is generally
supportive of multilateral arms control agreements.
Strongly supports the use of U.S. forces in recent peacekeeping
Supports a "one-China" policy, but opposes the Republican-crafted
Taiwan Security Enhancement Act.
Helped fashion current policy of multilayered engagement with
Russians to promote both economic reforms and nonproliferation
Middle East
Would delay any decision on moving the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem
until a Middle East peace settlement is reached.
Advocates the continued participation of U.S. troops in a NATO-
led peacekeeping force.
Latin America and Mexico
Supports NAFTA and fast-track authority, and proposes a free-
trade area of the Americas.
Defends the present policy of economic sanctions and
"containment" of Iraq.
North Korea
Supports the Clinton Administration's deal that freezes North
Korea's nuclear weapons program, but provides fuel oil to and
constructs civil nuclear reactors for that country.
Bush: Summary
Proposes dramatic restructuring and cuts to reduce the size of
Government Jobs
Would eliminate 40,000 civil service management jobs. Would give
more government work to private contractors. Would change civil
service rules to reward individual performance.
Would offer more government services and data online. Would
create a chief information officer and furnish $ 100 million for
computer automation.
Would establish a bipartisan Sunset Review Board to eliminate
duplicative and ineffective programs.
Gore: Summary
Has been a longtime champion of "reinventing government." Touts
federal staffing reductions and efficiency gains made on his
Government Jobs
Says that the Clinton-Gore Administration has eliminated 370,000
federal jobs over eight years. Has not specifically called for
more job cuts, outsourcing of federal work, or changes to civil
service rules. Supports giving federal workers more on-the-job
flexibility, as long as goals are met.
Would offer more government services and data online, including
his Across America initiative, which would target students, the
elderly, and rural communities.
Has not stated a position. As an eight-year incumbent, has less
reason than challenger Bush to emphasize oversight.
Bush: Summary
Supports strong enforcement of existing gun laws, and funding for
such federal programs as Project Exile, which brings prosecutors
and law enforcement officials together to target armed, convicted
felons and violent criminals.
Background Checks at Gun Shows
Supports immediate background checks of prospective buyers at gun
Gun Registration and Licensing
Opposes government-mandated registration of guns.
Child Safety Locks
Supports voluntary efforts to equip guns with safety locks;
however, will sign gun-lock mandates if Congress approves them.
Gore: Summary
Supports strong gun control measures.
Background Checks at Gun Shows
Supports background checks at gun shows, even if they cannot be
done instantly.
Gun Registration and Licensing
Supports national, mandatory licensing; supports an alternative
to registration, whereby sellers report identities of buyers to
state authorities; backs photo licenses and gun safety tests for
new handgun owners.
Child Safety Locks
Supports mandatory child safety locks.
Bush: Summary
Advocates reducing the number of uninsured citizens by
subsidizing their purchase of private health coverage. Also
supports limited patients' rights.
Tax Credits
Would give people who don't have employer-sponsored health
insurance an annual tax credit of up to $ 1,000 per individual and $2,000 per family to cover up to 90 percent of the cost of health
insurance. The subsidy would vary depending on income.
Wants to give states more flexibility in administering the
Children's Health Insurance Program, a federal block grant, and
allow them to expand CHIP to other eligible people, including
some parents.
Medical Savings Accounts
Wants to make existing medical-savings-account pilot programs
permanent and to lift the federal cap of 750,000 on the number of
accounts. Would allow all employers to offer MSAs, and would let
both employers and employees contribute to them. Would lower the
minimum deductible for accompanying catastrophic health plans to $1,000 for an individual and $ 2,000 for families.
Patients' Bill of Rights
Supports giving patients in federally governed health plans a
limited ability to sue their health plans for denied medical
Long-Term Care
Would make the cost of long-term-care insurance fully deductible,
and establish a personal tax exemption for home caregivers.
Group Purchasing
Would allow small businesses to band together across state lines
and form association health plans, in order to buy health
insurance through bona fide trade associations.
Gore: Summary
Supports incremental movement toward reducing the number of
uninsured citizens, first by expanding coverage through existing
government programs. Also supports broad patients' rights
legislation, including patients' right to sue their health plans
for denied services.
Tax Credits
Advocates the use of tax credits as a way to make insurance more
affordable for the uninsured. The tax credit would be the
equivalent of 25 percent of a person's health insurance costs.
Supports enrolling more children, and some parents, in the state
Children's Health Insurance Program and in Medicaid. Would expand
eligibility to include children living at up to 250 percent of
the federal poverty level (which would make a family of four
earning $ 41,000 eligible), and make states responsible for
enrolling eligible children.
Medical Savings Accounts
Opposes the widespread use of medical savings accounts, which he
argues would mostly attract healthy people and pull them out of
the regular insurance market, ultimately boosting costs for
Patients' Bill of Rights
Wants a broad patients' bill of rights that allows people who are
denied medical services to sue their health plans.
Long-Term Care
Wants a $ 3,000 tax credit for home caregivers. Has not proposed a
tax break for the purchase of long-term-care insurance because he
wants to see quality improvements in that market.
Group Purchasing
Would give tax credits to small-business employees who join
health care purchasing cooperatives, which could be run by
nonprofit organizations or other groups. Opposes association
health plans.
Bush: Summary
Would let local public housing authorities give low-income
renters up to a year's worth of rental vouchers in a lump-sum
payment, to cover home-purchase costs. Would permit the use of
Section 8 vouchers to subsidize monthly mortgage payments. Would
furnish $ 1 billion in federal homeownership assistance over five
Supports President Clinton's call for $ 690 million for 120,000
new Section 8 vouchers for fiscal 2001. Would also increase
support for the Housing and Urban Development Department's Home
Investment Partnership program and Community Development Block
Grant program.
Bush: Summary
Calls for changes in structure and policy of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service.
INS Reform
Would divide the INS into two agencies-one that handles
enforcement of current immigration law and one that focuses on
naturalization. Calls for a $ 500 million funding increase over
five years to improve service through employee incentives.
H1-B Immigrant Visas
Calls for an unspecified increase in the number of H1-B visas for
high-skilled foreign workers.
Calls for a six-month deadline for processing applications.
Family Reunification
Would change INS policy so that spouses and children of permanent
legal residents can more easily obtain visitor visas while their
applications for permanent residency are pending.
Gore: Summary
Supports changes in laws to allow families to stay together;
supports Clinton Administration policies intended to streamline
the naturalization process.
INS Reform
Would encourage the agency to separate enforcement and service
operations more clearly, but opposes creating two separate
agencies. Supports the Administration's call for more than $ 200
million in additional INS funding, most of it for enforcement and
border patrols.
H1-B Immigrant Visas
Would increase the number of H1-B visas offered annually from
115,000 to 200,000, but would raise the fee for them and use that
money for education programs.
Supports Clinton Administration efforts to streamline the process
with a goal of reducing the time of processing applications to
three months.
Family Reunification
Supports provisions that would more easily allow families to stay
together; would allow immigrants to have their papers processed
in the United States, rather than in their home countries.
Bush: Summary
Advocates making greater use of the nation's natural resources
and handing over more authority for land use policies to the
Land Preservation
Would encourage land conservation with tax credits for private
parties and local governments. Recommends abolishing the
inheritance tax so landowners won't be tempted to sell property
to developers to pay taxes. Supports full funding of the federal
Land and Water Conservation Fund, with a mandate that 50 percent
of the proceeds be spent on state and local conservation efforts.
Oil Exploration
Supports increased domestic production and exploration, including
in the protected Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska. Would
continue the current moratorium on offshore drilling in
California and Florida.
National Monuments
Opposes President Clinton's policy of protecting federal lands by
designating them as national monuments.
National Forests
Would reverse Clinton Administration proposals to protect 43
million acres of road-free national forests. Recommends more
logging on all national lands.
Gore: Summary
Would expand the land preservation policies of the Clinton
Land Preservation
Recommends setting aside more federal lands and paying for them
with new mining royalties from other federal property. Calls for $2 billion in tax incentives to protect wilderness areas from
Oil Exploration
Opposes new oil exploration in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife
Refuge. Would go beyond the current moratorium on oil-exploration
leases off the coasts of California and Florida and ban new
drilling under existing leases.
National Monuments
Supports President Clinton's designation of new national
National Forests
Supports Administration proposals to bar new road-building on as-
yet-untouched national forest lands, but would take the issue
further by including Alaska's Tongass National Forest in the
road-free designation. Also would prohibit logging in those
wilderness regions.
Bush: Summary
Advocates additional private-sector health plan choices for
Medicare beneficiaries, including options with prescription drug
Medicare Reform
Wants to build on the work of the National Bipartisan Commission
on the Future of Medicare; its leaders recommended opening up
Medicare to more health plans as a way to give the elderly more
choices while lowering costs.
Prescription Drugs
Supports offering a prescription drug benefit to Medicare
recipients through a greater choice of plans. Also supports
giving financial assistance to low-income elderly people to help
them pay for the plans.
Has not taken a position on Gore's proposal to put Medicare in an
off-budget lockbox.
Trust Fund
Proposes a unified trust fund for Medicare Part A, which covers
hospitalization, and Medicare Part B, which covers doctor visits.
Also supports doubling federal funding for Medicare over 10
years, but has not said where the extra money would come from.
Provider Giveback
Has not taken a position on a bill to restore funding to
hospitals and other health care providers that was lost as a
result of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Supported the first
legislation to restore funding, proposed in 1999, and has said
the issue is another reason to revamp Medicare.
Defends the rights of the elderly to remain in traditional fee-
for-service health insurance plans if they so desire, and
advocates a prescription drug benefit that applies to all
Medicare beneficiaries.
Medicare Reform
Advocates rooting out waste, fraud, and abuse and giving Medicare
more competitive tools, so long as beneficiaries are protected
from premium inflation.
Prescription Drugs
Would create a prescription drug benefit that would cover half
the cost of medicines up to $ 5,000 with no deductibles, and
catastrophic protections after $ 4,000 in out-of-pocket payments.
Elderly people with annual incomes below $ 11,000 would pay no
premiums or co-payments.
Wants to put Medicare in an off-budget lockbox, so that savings
from Medicare cannot be spent on other programs.
Trust Fund
Advocates using $ 75 billion of budget surplus money over 10 years
to extend the life of Medicare's hospital insurance trust fund
until at least 2030.
Provider Giveback
Would use $ 40 billion in budget surplus money to restore funding
to hospitals and other health care providers that was lost as a
result of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act.
Bush: Summary
Promotes business practices that allow customers to choose
companies whose privacy policies they favor, and has said that
people should have a veto over how personal information is used
and sold: "The principle ought to be (that) people should not be
able to use your information or mine without permission."
Online Privacy
Expects to release position paper soon. Open to requiring
companies to get consumers' approval before their data can be
used or sold.
Gore: Summary
Promotes business practices that allow customers to choose
companies whose privacy policies they favor, a federal "Privacy
Bill of Rights," and new laws to protect some aspects of medical
and financial privacy.
Online Privacy
Like Bush, prefers customer choice and industry self-regulation
to new federal rules. Would provide a "digital key" that gives
citizens secure access to online government services. Backs
legislation being pushed by congressional Democrats to restrict
the sale of any Social Security number without an individual's
Bush: Summary
Says government should turn first to faith-based organizations to
help needy people. Would extend the role and reach of charities
and churches, communities and corporations, synagogues and
mosques, and mentors and ministers.
Faith-Based Initiatives
Would establish an Office of Faith-Based Action in the Executive
Office of the President. Would remove barriers to faith-based
groups' participation in government programs.
Public Funding
Would offer competitive grants to faith-based groups for programs
that address problems such as the needs of children of prisoners.
Would expand the federal charitable deduction to people who do
not itemize on their tax returns, would promote a new charitable
state tax credit, and would provide incentives for corporate
Religion in School
Lamented recent Supreme Court ruling that public school districts
cannot allow students to lead stadium crowds in prayer before
high school football games. Supports student-led prayer and
posting of the Ten Commandments in public schools.
Gore: Summary
Defends separation of church and state.
Faith-Based Initiatives
Supports allowing states to enlist faith-based organizations to
provide basic welfare services as long as there is a secular
alternative and no one is required to participate in religious
observances to receive services. Opposes the use of faith-based
organizations as a substitute for governmental programs.
Public Funding
Supports public funding for faith-based organizations, but not to
the exclusion of government programs. Calls for more private
support for religious groups.
Religion in School
Opposes government-mandated prayer in public schools.
Bush: Summary
Proposes allowing younger workers to divert an unspecified
portion (uses 2 percent in his examples) of their Social Security
payroll taxes into individual investment accounts. Has pledged to
maintain existing benefits for disabled workers and survivors, as
well as for both current retirees and workers nearing retirement.
Proposes a plan that would not extend the life of the trust fund,
as now defined, because his plan would siphon younger workers'
taxes out of the U.S. Treasury in an expensive transition to
private-sector accounts. Has ruled out tax hikes to bridge the
shortfall, leaving unspecified benefit cuts or a diversion of
general revenues as the future alternative.
Private Investment
Would allow workers to move some of their tax payments into the
equity and bond markets to invest as they wish. Touts the "wealth
creation" potential of private accounts, which are controversial
and would accrue more dramatically to upper-income investors.
Acknowledges that individual accounts would mean less in the way
of guaranteed benefits for the elderly, but says that nothing
about the Social Security system has been "guaranteed" since
1935, because Congress has made and continues to make legislative
changes along the way.
General Revenues
Would divert an estimated $ 950 billion from federal coffers
between 2002 and 2010 into privately managed stocks and bonds,
according to one recent analysis. Additional revenues would be
needed to cover benefits to future retirees, unless benefits are
Gore: Summary
Proposes to use the federal budget surplus to pay down debt and
reduce the need for federal borrowing. Would credit the resulting
interest savings to the Social Security system as an accounting
mechanism to extend the life of the funds.
Relies on federal debt reduction and reduced interest costs to
extend the life of the Social Security trust fund to 2050.
Advisers say he could apply additional interest savings as they
materialize to extend solvency even further-to 2075.
Private Investment
Would offer workers supplemental individual tax-free retirement
accounts ("Retirement Savings Plus") matched with government tax
credits on a sliding scale. Workers could deposit as much as $1,500 a year in accounts managed by private financial
institutions and invested in broad-based equities, bonds, and
government securities.
Would add an expensive new benefit: government-matched private
accounts similar to 401(k) plans. The Gore plan includes no
benefit reductions to deal with the anticipated shortfall
resulting from too few workers covering the costs of too many
General Revenues
Says his supplemental accounts plan would cost $ 200 billion over
10 years, but most independent analysts say the price tag would
likely go much higher.
Bush: Summary
Has promised not to apply ideological litmus test on abortion or
other issues. Would be expected to nominate strict
constructionists, such as Associate Justices Antonin Scalia and
Clarence Thomas, to the bench.
Gore: Summary
Has said that he will nominate Justices who recognize that the
Constitution is a living, breathing document. Defends abortion
rights and the landmark Roe vs. Wade decision.
Bush: Summary
Favors tax cuts of some $ 483 billion over five years, including
cuts in the rate structure.
Marriage Penalty
Favors an $ 88 billion tax cut over 10 years for married couples.
Would restore the 10 percent deduction for two-earner families so
they could deduct up to $ 3,000 more than now permitted.
Low-Income Families
Would cut the marginal rate by more than 40 percent for low-
income families with two children, and by nearly 50 percent for
families with one child. Would increase the existing child tax
credit from $ 500 to $ 1,000 per child.
Research and Development
Would make permanent the research-and-development tax credit,
which provides tax breaks to businesses conducting research.
Other taxes
Would phase out the estate tax and use tax incentives to promote
savings for education, the purchase of health insurance, land
conservation, housing development, and charitable giving. Would
also use the tax code to help home caregivers, families with
child care expenses, and farmers.
Gore: Summary
Favors targeted tax cuts for specific purposes, as opposed to
Bush's more sweeping cuts. Favors modified Universal Savings
Accounts, which would encourage retirement savings for people who
cannot take advantage of IRAs or 401(k)s.
Marriage Penalty
Would address the so-called marriage penalty by providing an $ 80
billion tax cut over 10 years for married couples, which is less
than that proposed by congressional Republicans.
Low-Income Families
Would expand the earned income tax credit by up to $ 500 for
families with three or more children, and increase by $ 1,450 the
maximum income that two-wage married couples can earn before
their credit is phased out. Favors a $ 1-an-hour increase in the
hourly minimum wage over the next two years.
Research and Development
Would make permanent the research-and-development tax credit,
which provides tax breaks to businesses conducting research.
Other Taxes
Would use tax incentives to promote land conservation, education
savings, energy efficiency, ethanol research, and the purchase of
health insurance. Would use the tax code to help home caregivers
and families with child care expenses.
Bush: Summary
Would promote technology innovation with free-market policies,
increased government research, free trade, and legal reforms to
curb lawsuits.
Education and Training
Would boost government funding to add Internet links to schools,
bolster math and science education, and promote education reform
with vouchers.
Internet Taxes
Would extend existing moratorium that bars states from collecting
sales taxes on out-of-state online vendors for at least three
Stem-Cell Research
Supports current curbs against using federal funds for research
on stem cells taken from human embryos, but has also said he
would not restrict commercial technology development.
Gore: Summary
Would promote technology innovation with free-market policies,
increased government research, and free trade.
Education and Training
Would connect every classroom to the Internet and promote smaller
classrooms and better teachers.
Internet Taxes
Has said he would keep the federal moratorium that bars states
from collecting out-of-state Internet taxes, but has also said
the federal government should support state officials concerned
that Internet-tax losses create a "potential fiscal catastrophe."
Stem-Cell Research
Supports federal funding of research into stem cells taken from
human embryos, if nonfederal researchers obtain the cells.
Bush: Summary
Strongly supports free-trade policies.
Trade with China
Supports permanent normal trade relations with China as part of
Beijing's membership in the World Trade Organization.
Labor and Human Rights, Environmental Standards
Opposes conditioning trade liberalization on progress on labor,
human rights, and environmental issues.
High-Tech Trade
Committed to easing export restrictions on commercially available
technologies, but supports trade sanctions to promote his foreign
policy agenda.
Gore: Summary
Supports free-trade policies, but also emphasizes fair trade.
Trade with China
Supported permanent normal trade relations over opposition from
organized labor.
Labor and Human Rights, Environmental Standards
Supports using trade deals to improve worker and human rights and
to protect the environment.
High-Tech Trade
Supports relaxing export restrictions on commercially available
Bush: Summary
Hasn't announced a transportation agenda, but has attacked the
Clinton Administration for higher gas prices, and has proposed a
modest plan to help disabled Americans.
Would set aside $ 145 million over five years to provide easier
transportation access to disabled Americans and would target
community and faith-based organizations to provide this
Gasoline Prices
Blames today's high gas prices on the Administration's quest for
cleaner fuel and its failure to develop a comprehensive national
energy policy. Also argues that the Administration should
pressure OPEC to increase the supply of oil. Opposes efforts to
suspend the 18-cent-per-gallon federal gasoline tax to alleviate
higher gas prices
Gore: Summary
Supports transportation alternatives to reduce urban sprawl and
help clean the environment.
Would provide $ 25 billion over 10 years to give Americans more
transportation choices, such as high-speed rail, light rail, and
cleaner and safer buses.
Gasoline Prices
Blames today's high gas prices on possible price-gouging by the
oil industry. Would provide tax credits to Americans who buy
energy-saving vehicles and appliances. Like Bush, opposes
suspending the federal tax on gasoline purchases.
Compiled by Eliza Newlin Carney, with contributions from Perry
Bacon Jr., David Baumann, Piper Fogg, Elisabeth Frater, Sydney J.
Freedberg Jr., Siobhan Gorman, Louis Jacobson, James Kitfield,
Margaret Kriz, Megan Lisagor, John Maggs, Neil Munro, Mark
Murray, Marilyn Werber Serafini, Alexis Simendinger, Bruce
Stokes, Megan Twohey, Kirk Victor, and Shawn Zeller.

LOAD-DATE: August 16, 2000

Previous Document Document 25 of 85. Next Document


Search Terms: "Patients Bill of Rights"
To narrow your search, please enter a word or phrase:
About LEXIS-NEXIS® Academic Universe Terms and Conditions Top of Page
Copyright © 2001, LEXIS-NEXIS®, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.